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驱动精灵_巨大的氢能热背后:中央企业作为“先驱者”的成本是一个制约因素

????下载APP 阅读本文更深度报道每经记者欧阳凯每经编辑陈俊杰刚过去的春节档异常热闹,《流浪地球》突围而出,无处不在的“氢”成为这部“科幻先驱电影”中的重要元素。《流浪地球》的故事背景设定在2075年,那个时候,氢能已经被广泛应用于交通、工业、化工以及建筑等诸多领域。电影片头,幼时的刘启询问即将奔赴领航员空间的爸爸刘培强:“爸爸,氢是什么?”得到的回答是“氢是爸爸开大火箭的燃料”。电影之外,A股市场,春节后的第一周,燃料电池板块表现抢眼,其中部分个股股价在短时间内已经翻倍;行业面,全国已有11个省市相继发布了氢能产业规划,一股由央企作“先锋”的中国氢能潮流正在到来。煤企欲从中分羹这股氢能“潮流”,要从1年前国家能源集团牵头成立中国氢能源及燃料电池产业创新战略联盟说起。2018年2月,该联盟由10余家企业组建成立。作为发起者,国家能源集团不仅是第一任理事长单位,总经理凌文也出任了理事长一职。《每日经济新闻(博客,微博)》记者从采访中了解到,氢能联盟的筹备,科技部原部长徐冠华主持了不下六次会议,光筹备就耗时一年,一汽、二汽、潍柴、山东重工、同济大学、钢冶集团、有色研究院等都加入了这个联盟,委员会主任是徐冠华。这令人回想到8年前的另一幕。2010年8月18日,由国资委推动和倡导,十六家央企(国家电网、南方电网、中石油、中石化、中海油、东方电气(600875)、中国南车、长安汽车(000625)等)负责人并排坐在20米的红色长桌前,完成了《中央企业电动车产业联盟章程》的签署。这十六家央企被划分成三组,覆盖了整车与电驱动、电池研究以及能源供电和基建服务等产业链上下游。与“中央企业电动车产业联盟”稍显不同的是,“中国氢能联盟”选择由央企代替主管部门作为牵头者,所吸纳的成员属性不再限定为央企范畴,科研机构、投资机构均有参与。“中国氢能联盟”的主要定位,是为国家制定氢能源及燃料电池发展战略和实施路线提供顶层设计,支持联盟成员企业技术创新,推动全产业链的应用示范,创造参与氢能燃料电池装备制造应用技术,协助构建氢能社会并且作出规划。“从制氢、储氢、运氢、加氢再到燃料电池,到电池动力转换系统,再到车辆,这是一套全新的配套系统工程,厂线长、投资大,不是单个企业能够承受的。”国家电投集团氢能科技发展有限公司技术总监柴茂荣在接受《每日经济新闻》记者采访时表示。以制氢为例,工业化制氢路线主要包括水电解制氢、煤炭气化制氢、天然气制氢、生物质气化制氢、可再生能源制氢等。从我国能源禀赋及能源利用现状等因素出发,煤炭气化制氢、可再生能源制氢前景广阔。其中,又以煤炭气化制氢最受青睐。所谓煤制氢,是指通过气化技术将煤炭转化为气态产物,经分离处理提取高纯度的氢气。在我国,煤制氢实际早有应用。根据亚化咨询《中国煤制氢年度报告2018》统计,2010年至今,全国新建大型炼厂煤/石油焦制氢项目6套,煤制氢的总规模约为80.5万标立米/小时。另有15个拟在建炼化一体化项目,其中11个确定采用煤气化(000968)制氢工艺。所有这些,都是煤炭央企固有的先天优势。记者注意到,近1年时间,就有同煤、晋煤、兖矿等多家煤企以不同方式参与其中。晋煤集团煤化工研究院院长原丰贞,曾在接受媒体采访时这样强调做氢能的动机,他说,“当前正值‘二次转型’的发展加速期,我们急需先进技术与新兴产业推动企业向更高质量迈进,发展氢能正是一条煤炭清洁高效利用的有效途径”。央企扮演带头角色虽然氢气在理论层面相较于其他能源具有功率密度优势,且用于发电时建设成本较低,但是这仅考虑了发电时利用氢能源的模式。氢能源大范围推广使用离不开分布式使用场景,当应用场景发生变化时,氢能源使用需要考虑的影响因素就变得更为复杂。根据信达证券的研报,以氢能源燃料电池汽车为例,应用氢能源要考虑购买成本、维护成本、消耗成本、设施成本,综合考虑之下,在分布式应用场景中,氢能源应用综合成本很高。根据测算,一辆氢燃料车的使用综合成本达到0.24欧元/公里,但一辆柴油汽车和一辆纯电动车的使用综合成本分别为0.15欧元/公里和0.12欧元/公里。更重要的是,因为设备与技术要求,加氢站的建设运营成本远高于加油站和充电站,目前加氢站的数量还不足以完全满足商业化应用的需求。汽油和电力的广泛使用是以加油站和电网覆盖为前提的,氢能源大规模使用也要以加氢站覆盖为基础。根据中汽协数据,2018年我国燃料电池车总销量为1527辆,全国加氢站只有9座。“还有就是繁杂的手续,想拿到加氢站‘准生证’并非易事。在建设这个加氢站的过程中,各种各样的手续太多,一个申请需要跑好几个部门,盖好几个章,完成建设加氢站的全套审批流程最少需要半年,甚至有可能上不封顶。”曾有加氢站的负责人这样“吐槽”。国家能源集团内部人士向记者透露,央企其实早就在动,只是外界消息比较滞后而已。这句话又从侧面印证了审批流程的问题。“整个氢燃料电池是从国家层面、从能源角度来开发的,目的就是打通整个燃料电池的产业链。哪怕投进去一百亿、一千亿,我们也能做得起,作为国家能源战略转型升级的一部分,央企进入才是正道。”柴茂荣说得最直接。在他看来,日本是全世界最执着于氢能的国家,到目前为止已经发展20多年了,至少投入了上万元亿资金,才有如今相对成熟的氢能源市场,才有日系车企先后实现氢燃料汽车的量产。这真的不是单个中小企业就能做的。对于自身的定位,凌文曾表示:“绝不跟任何一个盟友去抢市场,我们会默默地做基础设施、做服务,像制氢、供氢、储氢,还有大量的前期投入,我们愿意做这样的事情,也有这样的优势。”“这可能是国家层面在一个产业起步初期,希望央企能承担带头的作用,就像电动汽车最开始需建充电桩,当时也是让国网、南网承担主力,持续投入依旧亏损还一度被外界诟病,后来随着电动车越来越多,才逐步放开,吸引民营资本投入建设充电桩,现在或许也是仿照当时的路径、思路来做”。另有业内人士这样向记者总结道。

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dui cheng shu de qing neng yuan shi chang, cai you ri xi che qi xian hou shi xian qing ran liao qi che de liang chan. zhe zhen de bu shi dan ge zhong xiao qi ye jiu neng zuo de. dui yu zi shen de ding wei, ling wen ceng biao shi:" jue bu gen ren he yi ge meng you qu qiang shi chang, wo men hui mo mo di zuo ji chu she shi zuo fu wu, xiang zhi qing gong qing chu qing, hai you da liang de qian qi tou ru, wo men yuan yi zuo zhe yang de shi qing, ye you zhe yang de you shi."" zhe ke neng shi guo jia ceng mian zai yi ge chan ye qi bu chu qi, xi wang yang qi neng cheng dan dai tou de zuo yong, jiu xiang dian dong qi che zui kai shi xu jian chong dian zhuang, dang shi ye shi rang guo wang nan wang cheng dan zhu li, chi xu tou ru yi jiu kui sun hai yi du bei wai jie gou bing, hou lai sui zhe dian dong che yue lai yue duo, cai zhu bu fang kai, xi yin min ying zi ben tou ru jian she chong dian zhuang, xian zai huo xu ye shi fang zhao dang shi de lu jing si lu lai zuo". ling you ye nei ren shi zhe yang xiang ji zhe zong jie dao.

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